on-page-seo guide

The Ultimate Guide to On-Page SEO: Optimize Your Webpages Like a Pro

Your website is the gateway for how your potential customers find you. 98% of people turn to the internet to start their search for a local business. The question becomes, how do I get my website to show up at the top of the search results when someone searches for a business like mine?

Look at every page on your website as a single website, each page is an opportunity to get found by potential customers. When you properly optimize these pages, you increase your chances of getting it to rank higher in the search results. On=Page SEO is how you do this.

On-Page SEO is where your journey towards higher rankings and increased web traffic starts. It encompasses all the tweaks and tunes you make directly on your webpages to become more visible and attractive to both search engines and users. Unlike Off-Page SEO, which revolves around backlinks and external signals, On-Page SEO is entirely within your control.

In this guide, we’ll discuss each aspect of On-Page SEO, ensuring you have a clear understanding of how to optimize your webpages. Plus, we’re offering a downloadable checklist to make the process even more manageable.

Take the first step towards creating webpages that not only rank higher but also offer an awesome user experience. Let’s jump into the world of On-Page SEO and uncover the strategies that can make a significant difference to your online visibility and business grow.

Bonus: At the end of this guide you can a download a handy free On-Page SEO Checklist in PDF format.

Keyword Research

Embarking on the journey of On-Page SEO begins with a crucial step: keyword research. It's the bedrock that supports your SEO endeavors, guiding you in understanding the language your potential customers use to find the services or products you offer.

Understanding Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Keywords

  • Primary Keyword: This is the main keyword that your page will focus on, representing the core topic of your content.
  • Secondary Keywords: These are related terms or synonyms of your primary keyword. They help enrich your content, making it more thorough and informative.
  • Tertiary Keywords: These keywords are usually long-tail phrases or related topics that can be woven into your content to capture additional search queries.

Conducting Keyword Research

Keyword research isn’t about guessing the terms your audience might use. It's a calculated endeavor that unveils the exact phrases people type into search engines. Here's how you can dive into it:

Free Tools:

  • Google Keyword Planner: A free tool by Google that provides keyword ideas along with estimated search volumes.
  • Ubersuggest: Offers a free version that provides a list of suggested keywords, their search volumes, and competition levels.

Paid Tools:

  • Ahrefs: A premium tool that offers an extensive keyword research feature, showing you the keyword’s search volume, difficulty, and also the sites ranking for it.

The key here is to find a mix of keywords that are relevant to your content, have a good search volume, and an acceptable level of competition.

Utilizing Your Keywords

Once you’ve gathered your keywords, it's time to strategically place them in your content. Your primary keyword should appear in crucial areas like the title, headers, and meta description, while secondary and tertiary keywords should be sprinkled naturally throughout the text.

Keyword research is not a one-time task. It's an ongoing process that keeps you in tune with market trends and the evolving language of your audience. With the right set of keywords, you lay a strong foundation for all your On-Page SEO efforts, moving a step closer to that well-optimized website driving continuous business your way.

Title Tag

example of title tag on-page seo

The title tag is akin to a book's title, offering a concise and accurate description of what the content is about. It's the first thing users and search engines encounter, making it a critical component in your On-Page SEO toolkit.

Deciphering the Title Tag

When you type a query into a search engine, you're greeted with a list of results. The clickable headline for each result is the title tag. It’s not just a mere title; it’s a signal to both searchers and search engines about the page's content. A well-crafted title tag can entice users to click through, while a poorly constructed one may deter them.

Example: Consider two title tags for a local bakery:

  • Title 1: “Home | Dave’s Bakery”
  • Title 2: “Fresh, Organic Breads and Pastries | Dave’s Bakery in Brooklyn”

Title 2 is more descriptive and enticing, informing users and search engines about what to expect on the page. It includes keywords like “Fresh, Organic Breads and Pastries” and even adds a local SEO touch by mentioning “Brooklyn.”

Crafting an Effective Title Tag

  • Uniqueness and Relevance: Every title tag on your website should be unique and closely related to the content on the page.
  • Keyword Placement: Include your primary keyword, preferably at the beginning of the title tag to catch both the user's and the search engine’s attention.
  • Character Limit: Keep it under 60 characters to ensure it displays correctly in search results.

Title Tag Best Practices

  1. Avoid Keyword Stuffing: Ensure the title reads naturally and avoids appearing spammy.
  2. Brand Name: If possible, include your brand name at the end of the title tag for brand recognition.
  3. Avoid Duplicate Title Tags: Duplicate title tags can confuse search engines and dilute the effectiveness of your SEO efforts.

A well-thought-out title tag is your first interaction with your audience on search engines. It’s a small yet significant step towards a well-optimized page, ensuring that your content gets the attention it deserves right from the get-go.

Meta Description

meta descriptions on-page seo

A meta description is a brief summary that provides search engines and users a glimpse into the content of a webpage. It's the snippet of text that appears beneath the title tag on search engine results pages (SERPs). While it may be short, crafting a compelling meta description is a small but significant step towards enticing users to click through to your website.

The Significance of Meta Descriptions

Think of meta descriptions as a movie trailer, offering a sneak peek that entices the audience to want to see the whole film. They provide a better understanding of what the page content is about, helping users decide whether it’s worth a click. If you do not add your own meta description, Google will pull snippets of text from the page as the meta description. The problem is that sometimes this text is not the best representation of what the page is about or how you want to describe it to readers. Now in some cases Google will overwrite your meta description if they feel it is not representative enough of the page but if you write a good description you should be ok.

Creating an Engaging Meta Description

  • Relevance: Ensure your meta description accurately reflects the content of the page.
  • Keyword Inclusion: Incorporate your primary keyword in a natural and meaningful way.
  • Character Limit: Aim to keep your meta description under 160 characters to ensure it displays correctly in SERPs.

Example: Consider a meta description for a local gym: “Discover a community of fitness enthusiasts at BodyFit Gym in Seattle. From yoga to high-intensity training, find a workout you love. Join us today!”

This meta description is concise, includes the primary keyword “gym in Seattle,” and invites action, enticing users to explore the gym’s offerings.

Meta Description Best Practices

  1. Unique Descriptions: Every page on your site should have a unique meta description.
  2. Call to Action: Encourage users to take action with phrases like “Discover,” “Learn more,” or “Join us today.”
  3. Avoid Keyword Stuffing: Much like title tags, ensure your meta description reads naturally and isn’t overstuffed with keywords.

Testing and Tweaking

It’s advisable to keep an eye on the performance of your meta descriptions. Tools like Google Search Console can provide insights into how often your pages appear in search results and the click-through rate (CTR). Over time, testing different meta description formulations can lead to better engagement and higher CTRs.

In the grand scheme of On-Page SEO, a well-crafted meta description acts as a hook to attract the right audience to your website, making it a crucial element in your optimization toolkit.

Headers (H1, H2, H3, etc.)

example h headers on-page seo

Headers are the roadmap of your content, guiding both readers and search engines through the various sections of your webpage. They're not just larger or bolded text; they are HTML tags that structure your content and signify the hierarchy of information.

Understanding Header Tags

  • H1 Tag: This is the main heading of your page, similar to the title of a book. It should include your primary keyword and give a clear indication of the page's content.
  • H2, H3, H4 Tags, and Beyond: These subheadings break down the content into digestible sections, making it easier to read and navigate.

Why Headers Matter

Headers help search engines understand the main topics of your page and the order of importance of those topics. They also enhance the user experience by breaking down content into easily scannable sections.

Crafting Effective Headers

  • Keyword Inclusion: Incorporate your primary and secondary keywords in headers, naturally and meaningfully.
  • Clarity and Precision: Ensure headers are clear, to the point, and reflect the content of the section they represent.

Example: Consider a webpage about homemade pizza:

  • H1: “Homemade Pizza: Your Guide to a Crispy, Chewy Crust”
  • H2: “Choosing the Right Flour”
  • H3: “Types of Flour for Pizza Dough”

This header structure organizes the content logically and includes keywords related to homemade pizza and dough.

Header Best Practices

  1. One H1 per Page: Stick to one H1 tag per page to maintain a clear focus.
  2. Logical Hierarchy: Maintain a logical hierarchy with your headers. Every H2 should fall under an H1, every H3 should fall under an H2, and so on.
  3. Descriptive Subheadings: Utilize subheadings to provide more detailed information about the section.

Avoiding Common Pitfalls

Steer clear of using headers just for styling text; that's a job for CSS. Headers are for structuring content. Similarly, avoid skipping header levels (going from H1 to H3), as this can confuse both readers and search engines.

Headers are more than a stylistic choice; they are a fundamental element of On-Page SEO that ensures your content is well-structured and easily understood by both your audience and search engines.


optimized content example-on-page-seo

The content on your webpage is the heart of your online presence. It's what educates, entertains, and engages your audience. But not just any content will do; it needs to be high-quality, original, and relevant to your audience.

Crafting High-Quality Content

Creating stellar content goes beyond merely stringing words together. Here’s what sets high-quality content apart:

  • Value: Does your content answer questions, solve problems, or entertain your audience?
  • Relevance: Is your content pertinent to your audience and your industry?
  • Originality: Is your content unique and not just a rehash of what others have said?
  • Depth: Does your content delve into the topic with a level of detail that showcases your expertise?

Enhancing Content with Multimedia

Enrich your content with images, videos, infographics, and other multimedia elements. This not only makes your content more engaging but also caters to different learning styles.

Example of High-Quality Content: Title: “The Comprehensive Guide to Sustainable Gardening”

Imagine a blog post that begins with a compelling introduction to sustainable gardening, explaining its importance and the impact on the environment. It then delves into various sub-topics, each covered under separate headers:

  • H2: “Choosing the Right Plants”
    • Content about native and drought-resistant plants with images showcasing different plant varieties.
  • H2: “Water-Saving Irrigation Techniques”
    • Explanation of drip irrigation, soaker hoses, with a video tutorial on setting up a rain barrel system.
  • H2: “Organic Soil Management”
    • Information on composting, mulching, with infographics illustrating the process.
  • H2: “Natural Pest and Weed Control”
    • Tips on natural pest deterrents, with images of beneficial insects and homemade weed killers.

The post would also include callouts with tips, a list of resources, and perhaps a downloadable checklist for sustainable gardening.

Examining Competitors and Upping Your Game

Look at what your competitors are doing. Examine their most popular posts and think about how you can do better. Is their content in-depth? Can you provide more insights, better images, or clearer explanations? Strive not just to match but to surpass the quality and depth of content your competitors are offering.

Content is a Long-Term Investment

Creating outstanding content is not a one-off task. It's a long-term investment that can continue to drive traffic, build your brand, and establish your authority in your field. Every piece of content you create is a step towards a stronger online presence.

Tip: Check out my Udemy course on Content Marketing.

Images and Alt Text

local marketing statistics

Images play a pivotal role in enhancing your content's appeal, breaking text monotony, and providing visual explanations of complex topics. However, to ensure your images contribute to your SEO efforts, it's crucial to optimize them and utilize Alt Text effectively.

Image Optimization

  • Quality and Relevance: Use high-resolution images that are relevant to your content.
  • File Size: Compress images to reduce file size without compromising quality, ensuring faster page loading times.
  • File Name: Name your image files descriptively to reflect the image content, using dashes between words, e.g., fresh-organic-vegetables.jpg.

Understanding Alt Text

Alt Text, short for alternative text, is an attribute added to the HTML code of an image providing a text alternative for search engines and visually impaired users utilizing screen readers.

Crafting Effective Alt Text

  • Descriptive: Describe the image content accurately.
  • Keyword Inclusion: If appropriate, include your primary keyword in a natural manner.
  • Concise: Keep it short and to the point, aiming for about 125 characters or less.

Example: Consider an image of a chocolate cake on a blog post about baking: Alt Text: “Moist chocolate cake topped with creamy chocolate frosting”

This Alt Text provides a clear description of the image, aiding both search engine understanding and accessibility.

Benefits of Alt Text

  1. Accessibility: Alt Text improves website accessibility, ensuring a better user experience for visually impaired individuals.
  2. SEO Benefits: Proper Alt Text helps search engines understand the image content, which can contribute to improved image search rankings.
  3. Error Handling: If an image fails to load, the Alt Text will display, providing users an understanding of what the image entails.

Enhancing User Experience

Pairing compelling images with accurate Alt Text not only enriches your content but also creates a more inclusive and optimized webpage. It’s a simple yet impactful step towards better On-Page SEO and a more engaging user experience.

Internal Links

Internal linking is a powerful yet often overlooked aspect of On-Page SEO. These are links that go from one page on a domain to a different page on the same domain. They're commonly used in main navigation, and they play a crucial role in guiding both search engines and users through your website's architecture.

Why Internal Links Matter

  1. Navigation: They help users navigate your website, leading them to related content or important sections.
  2. Information Hierarchy: By linking from high-authority pages to lower-authority ones, you distribute link equity and establish a clear information hierarchy.
  3. Enhanced User Engagement: By offering relevant internal links, you encourage users to explore more content, potentially reducing bounce rate and increasing time on site.

Implementing Effective Internal Linking

  • Relevancy: Link to pages that are relevant and offer value to your readers.
  • Anchor Text: Use descriptive anchor text that gives users and search engines an idea of the linked page’s topic.
  • Natural Placement: Place links where they make sense and flow naturally within your content.

Example: Consider a blog post about healthy recipes, with a section discussing gluten-free options. You could have an internal link like: “Explore our comprehensive guide on gluten-free flours for more baking alternatives.”

Internal Linking Best Practices

  1. Avoid Excessive Linking: Too many links can distract and overwhelm your readers. Aim for a balanced number of internal links.
  2. Use DoFollow Links: Unlike external links, internal links should typically be DoFollow to ensure search engines can crawl them.
  3. Check for Broken Links: Regularly check and fix broken internal links to maintain a good user experience and SEO integrity.

Building a Cohesive Web of Content

Think of internal linking as building a web of related content that provides a structured pathway through your site. It’s a simple strategy with significant benefits for both your users and your SEO efforts.

By creating a thoughtful internal linking structure, you guide your readers on a journey through your content, offering them more value and enhancing their overall experience on your site.

example of linking on-page seo

External Links

External links, or outbound links, are hyperlinks that direct from your website to other domains. They serve as a bridge to the broader internet, guiding your readers to additional resources, and supporting claims or data you mention in your content.

The Significance of External Linking

  1. Authority and Trustworthiness: By linking to reputable sources, you bolster the credibility of your content.
  2. Relevancy and Context: External links provide further reading opportunities, enriching the user experience.
  3. SEO Value: While inbound links (links from other sites to yours) are more valuable in SEO, well-chosen outbound links also contribute to a well-rounded SEO strategy.

Implementing External Links Effectively

  • Choose Reputable Sources: Link to authoritative sites to offer more valuable information to your readers.
  • Relevancy is Key: Ensure the links are relevant to the context of your content.
  • Descriptive Anchor Text: Utilize clear and descriptive anchor text to indicate the content behind the link.

Example: In a blog post discussing the benefits of a balanced diet, you could reference reputable sources like this: “A balanced diet is crucial for overall health, as supported by numerous studies (link to a reputable health organization).”

Local External Linking Opportunities

For local businesses, external linking can also serve as a community engagement tool. Here are some places where a local business could acquire or give external links:

  • Local Blogs: Engage with local bloggers and offer to write guest posts or get featured in their content.
  • Community Organizations: Partner with local nonprofits or community groups and sponsor events or activities.
  • Other Local Businesses: Collaborate with neighboring businesses for mutual promotion or joint events.
  • Civic Organizations: Engage with local civic organizations and offer support or collaborate on community initiatives.
  • Chamber of Commerce: Become a member of your local Chamber of Commerce and get listed on their website or participate in their events.

Best Practices for External Linking

  1. NoFollow Tags: Use NoFollow tags for external links when the credibility of the site is uncertain or for paid links.
  2. Open in New Tab: Set external links to open in a new tab to keep your website accessible to readers.
  3. Regularly Check Links: Maintain an active check on your external links to ensure they remain relevant and operational.

Fostering Community Engagement and Web Ecosystem

By engaging in thoughtful external linking, not only do you provide additional value to your readers, but you also foster a sense of community engagement. It’s an avenue to connect your local business to the larger community, both online and offline, enhancing your reputation and relationships within your locale.

URL Structure

descriptive url example

The structure of your URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is like the address of your webpage on the internet. It’s how users and search engines find your content. A well-structured URL is clean, descriptive, and easy to understand at a glance.

Essentials of a Good URL Structure

  1. Descriptive: A good URL clearly indicates the content of the page.
  2. Concise: Keep your URL short and to the point.
  3. Keyword-Inclusive: Incorporate your primary keyword in a natural and meaningful way.

Example of a Good URL Structure: Consider a page about homemade apple pie recipes:

  • Good URL: www.yoursite.com/homemade-apple-pie-recipes
  • Bad URL: www.yoursite.com/pageid=123&category=2

Creating Effective URLs

  • Use Hyphens to Separate Words: Use hyphens (-) rather than underscores (_) to separate words, e.g., homemade-apple-pie.
  • Avoid URL Parameters: Whenever possible, avoid using URL parameters and instead, opt for a clear, readable URL structure.
  • Maintain a Consistent Structure: Keep a consistent URL structure across your site to provide a clean and predictable navigation experience.

Local SEO Touch

For local businesses, incorporating the location in the URL can be beneficial. For instance:

  • www.yoursite.com/los-angeles-hair-salon

Best Practices for URL Structure

  1. Avoid Special Characters: It’s best to avoid using special characters in your URLs (like &, %, $, @), as they can cause issues with browsers and are not SEO-friendly.
  2. Lowercase Letters: Use lowercase letters to avoid duplicate URLs and confusion, as URLs are case-sensitive.
  3. Avoid Superfluous Information: Keep URLs straightforward and free of unnecessary information.

The Impact on User Experience and SEO

A well-structured URL is both user-friendly and SEO-friendly. It helps in improving the user experience by providing a clear pathway to the content, and it also makes it easier for search engines to understand the relevance and context of the page.

By taking the time to craft clear, descriptive URLs, you contribute to a better organizational structure on your website, which can have a lasting positive impact on your SEO efforts and user engagement.

Mobile Optimization

In a world where smartphones are ubiquitous, optimizing your website for mobile is no longer optional—it's essential. Mobile optimization ensures that your site looks good and performs well on mobile devices, providing a seamless user experience regardless of the screen size.

Key Aspects of Mobile Optimization

  1. Responsive Design: A responsive design automatically adjusts to fit the screen size of the device being used, ensuring your site looks great on phones, tablets, and desktops alike.
  2. Fast Loading Times: Mobile users expect quick load times. Compress images, minimize code, and leverage browser caching to speed up your page loading times.
  3. Easy Navigation: Design a simple, intuitive navigation structure that allows users to find what they’re looking for with ease.

Google's Mobile-First Indexing

Google now uses mobile-first indexing, which means it predominantly uses the mobile version of a site for ranking and indexing. This change underscores the importance of mobile optimization for SEO.

Tools for Mobile Optimization

  • Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test: This free tool analyzes your site and provides feedback on its mobile-friendliness.
  • PageSpeed Insights: Another tool by Google that provides suggestions for improving your site’s loading times on both mobile and desktop.

Local SEO Consideration

For local businesses, mobile optimization is particularly crucial as many users search for local information on-the-go. Ensure your location, hours of operation, and contact information are easily accessible on mobile.

Benefits of Mobile Optimization

  1. Improved User Experience: A mobile-optimized site provides a better user experience, which can lead to longer visit durations and lower bounce rates.
  2. Better Search Rankings: Mobile-friendliness is a ranking factor in Google’s algorithm, so mobile optimization can help improve your site’s visibility in search results.
  3. Increased Traffic: As mobile internet usage continues to rise, having a mobile-optimized site can drive more traffic to your site.

Staying Ahead in the Mobile Era

Mobile optimization is not a one-and-done task. As new devices and technologies emerge, it’s important to continually test and optimize your site for mobile to ensure you’re providing the best possible experience for your users, no matter how they access your site.

Social Sharing

In the digital landscape, social media is a powerful conduit for increasing visibility and fostering engagement. By integrating social sharing buttons on your website, you encourage visitors to share your content with their networks, amplifying your reach and potentially driving more traffic to your site.

Key Elements of Social Sharing

  1. Share Buttons: Incorporate social share buttons for platforms where your target audience is active, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, or Pinterest.
  2. Visibility: Position your share buttons prominently on the page, either at the top, bottom, or as a floating sidebar, to encourage sharing.
  3. Ease of Use: Ensure the share buttons are easy to use with a simple click, automatically populating a shareable link and a pre-written message or image.

Benefits of Social Sharing

  1. Extended Reach: When individuals share your content, it reaches new audiences who may not know about your brand.
  2. Increased Traffic: Shares on social media can lead to more clicks back to your website.
  3. Improved SEO: While the direct impact of social signals (social media activity) on SEO is debatable, there's no denying that positive social engagement can lead to other SEO benefits like backlinks and improved brand reputation.

Local SEO Angle

For local businesses, social sharing can have a community-building aspect. Engaging locally on social platforms and encouraging local customers to share your content can foster a sense of community and promote local brand loyalty.

Example: Consider a blog post about a local charity event your business sponsored. By having easily accessible share buttons, readers can effortlessly share the post, spreading awareness about the event and your brand’s involvement in the community.

Optimizing for Social Sharing

  • Meta Tags: Utilize social meta tags like Open Graph for Facebook and Twitter Cards for Twitter to control how your content appears when shared on social platforms.
  • Catchy Headlines and Images: Craft enticing headlines and include visually appealing images to encourage more shares.
  • Shareable Content: Create content that resonates with your audience and prompts them to share.

Building a Share-Worthy Website

The integration of social sharing isn’t just about placing some buttons on your page; it’s about creating a share-worthy website. Engaging content, easy-to-use share features, and active social media engagement are all part of fostering a website that invites visitors not only to consume your content but to share it with others.

Schema Markup

example of review schema markup

Schema markup, a code you put on your website, helps search engines provide more informative results for users. By implementing schema, you make it easier for search engines to understand the content on your pages, which can contribute to improved rankings and visibility.

Understanding Schema Markup

Schema markup is structured data vocabulary that you can add to your HTML to improve the way search engines read and represent your page in SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages).

Types of Schema Markup

  1. Organization Schema: Provides details about your business, including name, logo, and contact information.
  2. Local Business Schema: Offers specific information for local businesses, such as operating hours and location.
  3. Event Schema: Highlights upcoming events with details like date, time, and venue.
  4. Product and Offer Schemas: Provide information about products and offers, including price, availability, and review ratings.

Implementing Schema Markup

  • Select Relevant Schema Types: Choose the schema types that are relevant to your business and content.
  • Use a Schema Markup Generator: Utilize tools like Google's Structured Data Markup Helper to create the schema code.
  • Test Your Markup: Use Google's Structured Data Testing Tool to ensure your markup is implemented correctly.

Local SEO and Schema Markup

For local businesses, schema markup is a golden opportunity to provide search engines with specific information about your services, reviews, locations, operating hours, and much more. If you use a content management system like WordPress, there are several Scheme plugins available that help to make this whole process much easier.

Example: A local bakery could implement Local Business Schema to provide search engines with information about its location, operating hours, and menu offerings. This data can then be displayed directly in the SERPs, making it easier for potential customers to find and engage with the business.

Benefits of Schema Markup

  1. Enhanced Listings: Schema markup can lead to rich snippets, which are enhanced listings displayed in SERPs that can include images, ratings, and other descriptive information.
  2. Improved CTR: Rich snippets can improve click-through rates by providing more information to users.
  3. Competitive Edge: In a competitive market, having rich snippets can help your listing stand out in the SERPs.

The Competitive Edge

Incorporating schema markup is like speaking the search engine's language. It's a sophisticated SEO strategy that can provide a competitive advantage, ensuring your business is presented accurately and enticingly in the digital landscape.

Get Started With Your On-Page SEO

Getting your website and web pages to rank in Google and other search engines requires a sound grasp of On-Page SEO essentials. This guide lays down a solid groundwork, and the checklist we've created is your roadmap to enhancing your website's SEO and user engagement.

Special Offer: Unlock further insights by downloading our comprehensive On-Page SEO Checklist for free. Click Here to get your checklist now and take a significant step towards optimizing your web pages.

Need help with your On-Page SEO and content creation? 3Bug Media is a North Carolina based Local SEO company that has been helping local businesses in the US and Canada rank their websites high in Google for over 13 years. Contact us today to learn more and to schedule a free consultation.

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CEO at 3Bug Media
Gary Shouldis is the founder of 3Bug Media, a web marketing company that helps businesses create 360 Marketing Strategies to dominate their market. His blog is read by over 20 thousand small business owners a month and has been featured in the N.Y. Times Small Business, Business Insider and Yahoo Small Business.